April 23, 2024
Biotechnology Instruments

Exploring the Role of Advanced Biotechnology Instruments From Spectrophotometers to PCR Machines

Biotechnology is the application of biological organisms, biological systems or biological processes to manufacture products or services. Over the past few decades, biotechnology has transformed various industries like healthcare, agriculture, and environment. The advancements in biotechnology instruments have played a key role in driving innovation across life sciences.

Spectrophotometers for Analysing Biological Samples

Spectrophotometers are one of the most commonly used instruments in biotechnology and life science labs. They work by passing a beam of light through a sample and measuring how much light is transmitted and absorbed at a specific wavelength. There are various types of spectrophotometers used for different applications:

– UV-Vis Spectrophotometers: These spectrophotometers measure absorption in the ultraviolet-visible light range. They are widely used to quantify the concentration of DNA, RNA, proteins and other biological molecules in a sample. UV-Vis spectrophotometers allow quick and accurate analysis of biological samples.

– Fluorescence Spectrophotometers: Instead of measuring absorption, these instruments measure fluorescence emission from a sample exposed to light in the UV or visible range. Fluorescence spectrophotometers are very useful for applications like studying interactions between biomolecules, tracking biological processes in real-time and drug discovery research.

– Infrared Spectrophotometers: Infrared spectrophotometers analyze samples based on the frequencies of infrared radiations they absorb. They are instrumental in determining the molecular structure of organic and inorganic compounds. In biotechnology, infrared spectrophotometers help characterize biological polymers like proteins, carbohydrates and lipids.

Microscopes for Visualizing Cellular Structures

Microscopes have always played a crucial role in advancing our understanding of cells and biology. Modern biotechnology laboratories utilize high-powered digital microscopes with advanced imaging capabilities:

– Fluorescence Microscopes: These microscopes use fluorescent probes and stains to visualize sub-cellular components that normally cannot be seen with colorimetric illumination alone. Fluorescence microscopes are indispensable for cell biology research.

– Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopes: Confocal microscopes capture high-resolution optical sections from within a specimen. They eliminate out-of-focus light to generate crisp 3D images. Confocal microscopes have significantly enhanced research in areas of neuroscience, immunology and embryology.

– Electron Microscopes: Electron microscopes like transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) can magnify samples up to several hundred thousand times. They are extremely useful for visualizing ultrastructures of cells and biomolecules down to the level of individual atoms.

Chromatography Instruments for Separating Mixtures

Chromatography techniques constitute an entire class of important analytical methods used extensively in Biotechnology Instruments. Different chromatography instruments serve various separation purposes:

– Gas Chromatography (GC): Used to separate and analyze volatile compounds in gaseous or liquid form. GC is commonly used in analysis of essential oils, fatty acid composition study and metabolic profiling.

– High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): The method of choice for separating, analyzing and purifying non-volatile compounds like peptides, proteins and pharmaceutical drugs. Reverse-phase, ion-exchange and size-exclusion are primary HPLC modes employed.

– Size-Exclusion Chromatography: A specialized form of liquid chromatography ideal for separating biological macromolecules according to their hydrodynamic size. It provides information on molecular weight distributions of proteins and polymers.

– Ion-Exchange Chromatography: Separates analytical samples according to differences in ionic charge. Helps purification and characterization of amino acids, nucleotides, proteins and other ionizable biomolecules.

Polymerase Chain Reaction Instruments

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) instruments have emerged as valuable workhorses in molecular biology labs over the last few decades. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) machines provide excellent tools for amplifying and quantifying DNA and RNA:

– Standard Thermal Cyclers: Used for qualitative PCR to simply amplify target segments of DNA or RNA. Advanced versions offer automated optimization of cycling conditions.

– qPCR Instruments: Allow quantitative measurement of amplified products in real-time during each PCR cycle. qPCR is commonly used for gene expression analysis and quantification of DNA/RNA in a sample.

– Digital PCR Systems: Provide absolute quantification of nucleic acids without the need for calibration curves. Partition PCR reactions into many individual compartments to achieve high precision and sensitivity.

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1. Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public sources, Desk research
2. We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile it