May 22, 2024
Piling machine
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Piling Machine Plays An Important Role In The Construction For Driving Piles Into The Ground

Introduction

Piling machine plays an important role in the construction for driving piles into the ground to form foundations for buildings, bridges, flyovers and other structures. Piling provides stability and strength to support heavy loads exerted by these structures. In this article, we will discuss in detail about the different types of piling machines used for various construction projects and their working mechanisms.

Types of Piling Machines

There are various types of piling machines depending on the type of piles used and soil conditions. Some of the major types are:

Impact Pile Drivers

Impact pile drivers are one of the most commonly used piling machines. They use the driving force of a heavy weight or hammer repeatedly falling onto the top of the pile to drive it into the ground. There are two types of impact pile drivers – open-ended diesel hammers and closed-ended drop hammers. Open-ended diesel hammers allow debris to escape from the pile as it moves in whereas closed-ended drop hammers contain the pile inside a leader.

Rotary Piling Machines

Rotary piling machines are suitable for soft to medium dense soils. They have a rotator head which drills or augers the soil to form a hole into which precast reinforced concrete piles can be placed. Some common types are jar systems, continuous flight auger systems and displacement systems depending on the soil extraction method.

Vibratory Drivers

Vibratory drivers use high frequency, low amplitude vibrations to advance piles into the ground rather than impact forces. They are useful for cohesive or compacted soils. Commonly used types are pneumatic vibratory drivers and vibratory pile hammers.

Hydraulic Push Piling Rig

Hydraulic push piling rigs are large rigs mounted on crawlers or heavy duty trailers. They push precast concrete or steel piles into the ground using hydraulic rams generating high pressure. They are suitable for dense compacted soils where impact or vibratory methods may not work.

Screw Piling Systems

Screw piling systems install screw piles by rotating them into the soil. They come in various diameters depending on load capacity required. A driving head at the top transmits torque to rotate and advance the hollow shaft or solid bar of the screw pile.

Crawler Piling Machines for Precast Piles

Crawler mounted piling rigs provide mobility to transport and install precast concrete or steel piles. Their crawler tracks enable them to maneuver and operate easily on difficult job sites. They can apply both impact and vibratory forces for driving piles.

Working of Piling Machines

Now let us understand in brief the working of some common piling machines:

– In impact pile drivers, the diesel hammer or drop hammer is raised to a height and dropped using gravity onto the pile head to drive it down. multiple blows are delivered in quick succession.

– Rotary Piling Machines first drill or auger a hole into the ground using a rotator head attached to an extension mast. Once the hole is formed, precast reinforced pile is inserted using hydraulic rams.

– Vibratory drivers setup oscillating forces that cause soil particles to rearrange and allow penetration of pile through vibrations rather than impact blows.

– Hydraulic push piling rigs use high pressure hydraulic rams attached to strong leader clamped to pile head to push piles gradually into dense soil.

– Screw piling machines apply rotational motion and downward pressure to screw piles to move them through the soil in a helical motion.

Applications of Piling

Based on project requirements, soil conditions and load carrying capacity needs, appropriate piling machines and pile types are selected. Here are some common applications of piling:

– Foundations for high rise buildings, bridges and flyovers need deep piles installed by impact or rotary methods.

– Sheet piles are installed along banks for river training and land reclamation works using vibratory or hydraulic rigs.

– Precast concrete or steel H-piles are used below foundations of heavy machinery to take vibrations in industrial plants.

– Mini steel piles installed by small capacity rigs are used for underpinning existing structures or temporary works.

– Screw piles are suitable for installing solar lighting poles or communication towers at locations with poor access.

Advantages of Piling

– Piles transfer structural loads to deeper stronger soil strata thereby providing stability to tall structures.

– They prevent settlement and help foundations to stay intact even if upper soil layer settles due to vibrations, erosion etc.

– Piled foundations are suitable for difficult soil conditions like filled grounds or waterlogged areas.

– Reinforced concrete piles form a rigid structural system once the pile cap is placed improving shear and load transfer.

– Piling ensures longevity of structures by protecting them against effect of subsoil conditions and environmental factors.

New Technologies

The piling industry has also witnessed new technological advancements to enhance work efficiency and safety:

– Piling rigs with remote controls and global positioning systems enable operators to work from a safe distance.

– 3D modeling and dynamic load calculations help in detailed pile design and installation planning.

– Pile driving monitors attached to rigs measure installation parameters like blows/unit penetration.

– Composite piles made of recycled materials like fly ash provide sustainable and cost effective foundation solutions.

– Ultra-high capacity rigs driven by electric motors and hybrid systems minimize noise and air pollution at sites.

In this article, we examined the need for piling in construction and various types of piling machines and their mechanisms. Proper selection of machine and piling method plays an important role in ensuring stable and durable foundations. With continuous innovations, the piling industry will evolve further to build sustainable and resilient infrastructure all over the world.

*Note:
1. Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public sources, Desk research
2. We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile it