April 24, 2024

Poultry Farming Is One Of The Most Popular And Profitable Agricultural Business

In this article, we will discuss various aspects of poultry farming including its current status, popular breeds, housing and management practices.

Current Scenario

Poultry is one of the fastest growing segments in Indian agriculture. India is now the third largest egg producer and fifth largest broiler meat producer in the world. According to the latest official data, the poultry population in the country stands at over 729 million. Broiler meat production has grown from 0.35 million tonnes in 1990-91 to 3.4 million tonnes currently. Similarly, egg production has gone up from 18 billion to 95 billion during the same period. The poultry sector provides employment to over 6 million people and is also a major source of income for small and marginal farmers. Some of the key states contributing to poultry production are Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.

Popular Breeds

A variety of commercial poultry breeds are bred and reared in India for egg and meat production. Some of the most common breeds being raised are:

– Broiler Breeds: Cobb, Arbor Acres, Hubbard are popular commercial broiler breeds known for high growth rate and feed efficiency ratios. Broilers are raised specifically for meat production.

– Layer Breeds: White Leghorn, ISA Brown, Gramapriya are popular commercial egg laying breeds. They have high annual egg production capacities.

– Dual Purpose Breeds: Vanaraja, Krishibro are popular Indian dual purpose breeds developed for higher egg and meat production under local conditions.

Apart from these specialized breeds, indigenous varieties like Aseel, Kadaknath are also bred for specific traits like flavor, disease resistance etc.

Housing and Management

Proper housing and management practices play a crucial role in achieving optimum production outcomes from poultry farming. Some of the key aspects are:

– Housing: Broiler sheds, layer farms, deep litter system etc. Adequate space, ventilation, temperature control are essential.

– Feeding: Balanced diet as per age and production stage via mash, pellet, concentrates etc. Feed formulas are prepared based on nutrient requirements of specific breeds.

– Disease Management: Routine vaccination schedules, biosecurity protocols, clean drinking water, proper waste disposal are important to prevent infections.

– Recording and Monitoring: Growth rates, feed consumption, egg production, mortality are recorded for analyzing performance and taking corrective actions.

– Breeder Farm Management: Broiler breeders need special care as per their production cycle to maximize fertile egg collection under hygienic conditions.

Proper housing infrastructure and adoption of scientific management practices have allowed the poultry sector in India to grow in a sustainable and organized manner over the past few decades.

Financial Viability

Poultry farming is known to have very good financial and economic returns due to the short growth cycle, continuous production in layers and higher feed conversion efficiency compared to other livestock. Some of the key financial aspects are:

– Low Capital Investment: Starting a small commercial poultry unit requires an investment of Rs. 2-5 lakhs only which can be funded through bank loans or own capital.

– Short Gestation: Broilers mature within 35-40 days and start laying within 18 weeks in case of layers, allowing for quicker turnover of capital.

– Higher Net Returns: With markets well established across India and rising demand, net returns per cycle range between Rs. 30-50/bird for broilers and Rs. 1500-2500 per annum per layer.

– Alternate Source of Income: It provides supplementary income for small and marginal farmers with little land holdings apart from primary agriculture.

– Employment Generation: It has potential for income generation through self-employment and other ancillary market activities like input supply, processing etc.

With increasing mechanization and integration with business houses, poultry farming has transformed into a full-fledged agri-business model generating good profitability even with small enterprises. It has emerged as one of the most bankable ventures for rural entrepreneurs.

Scope for Growth and Value Addition

While Poultry sector has grown impressively over last few decades, there remains significant untapped potential as meat consumption in India is still quite low compared to other developed nations. Changing demographics, rising incomes and urbanization are expected to further boost demand. Some key growth areas are:

– Increased Feed Production: With rising demand, more investments are needed in feed mills, expansion of soyabean and other feed grain production.

– Integrated Farms: Larger integrated farms are rising to gain operational efficiency and meet bulk supply requirements of organized retailers.

– Contract Farming: Corporatization is resulting in more contract growing arrangements tying farmers to reliable market linkages and inputs.

– Value Additions: There is scope for exports and further processed products like nuggets, sausages, ready-to-eat meals to boost realizations.

– Waste Utilization: Efforts are needed to convert poultry waste to useful byproducts like biogas, biofertilizers instead of being a pollutant.

Concerns like bird flu, increasing feed and production costs remain challenges for the sector. But with strong fundamentals in place, poultry is expected to continue its impressive growth trajectory in India, contributing further to national food and nutritional security.

This article provided an overview of the poultry sector covering areas like current production scenarios, popular breeds, standard management practices, financial viability aspects as well as future growth opportunities. Poultry farming has emerged as one of the major success stories of Indian agriculture with immense potential to generate more income and employment if scaled up further with innovation.

Note:
1. Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public sources, Desk research
2. We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile it